processes involved with and the use of the Main Roads Survey and Mapping Standard 67/08/108 "Settlement Monitoring".
Settlement Monitoring surveys are performed to determine the degree of horizontal and vertical displacement of structures, pavements and embankments over a defined period. Severe pavement damage and structural failure can be a direct result of settlement (*) and therefore it is critical that movement outside the design tolerances are detected and measured.
...This activity is performed on road where experience has shown that pavement could be subject to excessive movement as a result of the road location, its foundations, amount of traffic and other factors which may now be different from those which the road was designed for. The need to monitor pavement may also develop with time, as factors such as climate change, water table variations, traffic density changes, soil compaction, changes in soil foundation type, all take effect.
Unless specified, all survey work will be undertaken in accordance with Mainroads Survey and Mapping Standard 67-08-108 "Settlement Monitoring"...
I guess we aren't the only ones being monitored.
Foundations for buildings are generally designed based on the ground conditions which are obtained from a sub soil investigation (soil mechanics) The criteria obtained from a soil investigation will detirmine the type of foundations to be used for a particular building. In many cases it is known that once constructed a building will "settle" on it's foundations or rather the foundations settle with the loads now imposed by the structure. This may only be a matter inches but to check that the settlement is in accordance with the designed assumtions this can be checked at regular intervals which is called monitoring.
There's also this very different Settlement Monitor project in Ohio:
Monitoring the League of Women Voters of Ohio’s istoric Election Lawsuit Settlement
And here's the real stuff.